New Harappan sites are getting discovered all over North India and enhancing our understanding of our history. In 2004, a Harappan site was found in the small town of Bagasara in Gujarat, which dates back to 2500 B.C. This site was found to have a shell making workshop, fortifications, and knives with bone handles. In 2005, the first Harappan burial site was found in Baghpat, Uttar Pradesh. Other sites include Rapar area of Gujarat’s Kutch district, and Farmana Khas in Haryana.
Excavations in Rakhigarhi, Haryana have revealed one of the largest Harappan sites ever discovered and has pushed back the history of Harappans by about 500 years.
“The site yielded finds of the early Harappan and mature Harappan phase,” said Dr Nath. He said that features like knowledgeof writing, use of wedge-shaped bricks and town planning, earlier thought to be present in the mature phase i.e 2500 BC, were discovered to be present in the early phase i.e 3000 BC. Evidence of well-planned towns were found, he said.
Dr Nath designated two periods in the early Harappan phase — pre-formative and formative. “The pre-formative period yielded circular structures and showed no formal planning. Whereas, the formative period exhibited planned structures. Burnt bricks were much in use during the early Harappan phase,” said Dr Nath.
The mature Harappan phase yielded a granary, with evidence of grain, fire altars and potters kiln. There was evidence of various crafts such as bead- making, bangle making, seal manufacturing, gold making, carpentry and terracotta making, practised by the people. Fish hooks were also discovered, pointing to the fact that the people practised fishing. Mirrors, tops, whistles arrowheads, rattles and tops were found. There is evidence to show that hopscotch was also played. [‘Rakhigarhi is the largest Harappan site ever found’]